Hướng dẫn viết Writing Task 2 IELTS - Problems and Solutions - Học Hay


Đăng bởi Mỹ Anh | 24/03/2020 | 17
Hướng dẫn chi tiết cách viết IELTS Writing Task 2 - Problems and Solutions | Học Hay

Dạng bài Problems and Solutions trong IELTS Writing Task 2 là gì?

- Causes/Problems and Solutions là dạng câu hỏi yêu cầu thí sinh đưa ra vấn đề hoặc nguyên nhân gây ra vấn đề, đồng thời chỉ ra hệ quả/giải pháp cho vấn đề đó. 

- Cách nhận biết dạng đề Causes/Problem-Solutions: thông thường, dạng đề này sau khi đã giới thiệu về chủ đề sẽ có 2 câu hỏi, bạn phải đọc kỹ câu hỏi để có thể nắm rõ được đề bài yêu cầu:

  • Dạng nguyên nhân (causes) - giải pháp (solutions): Bạn sẽ phân tích nguyên nhân gây ra vấn đề được đề cập trong đề bài và những giải pháp khắc phục/cải thiện vấn đề đó.

Ví dụ: 

Cycling is more environmentally-friendly than other forms of transport. Why is it not popular in many places? How to increase its popularity?

  • Dạng nguyên nhân (causes) -  hệ quả (effects): Bạn sẽ phân tích nguyên nhân và từ đó chỉ ra những hệ quả mà vấn đề đó mang lại.

Ví dụ:

Nowadays many adults have full-time jobs and the proportion of their lives spent on work is very high. Some of them are under high stress and ignore other parts of life. What are the causes and effects?

  • Dạng vấn đề (problems) - giải pháp (solutions): Bạn sẽ giới thiệu những tác hại và đưa ra giải pháp cho từng tác hại đó.

Ví dụ: 

Consumers are faced with increasing numbers of advertisements from competing companies. To what extent do you think consumers are influenced by advertisements? What measures can be taken to protect them?

 

Đề bài dạng này sẽ có các từ như reasons, problems, causes (nguyên nhân) hay what effects, some measures (giải pháp).

Bố cục bài viết IELTS Writing Task 2 – Problems and Solutions:

Cũng như các dạng bài khác trong Writing Task 2, dạng bài Problem & Solutions bao gồm 3 phần như sau:

 

- Phần Giới thiệu: Đối với dạng bài Problems & Solutions bạn không cần phải đưa ra ý kiến của bản thân (như là đồng ý hay không đồng ý với vấn đề này) bởi vì câu hỏi của dạng bài này không yêu cầu. 

- Phần Thân bài: Dựa theo các dạng bài khác nhau mà phần thân bài bạn có thể chia một đoạn cho vấn đề/nguyên nhân và một đoạn cho giải pháp/hệ quả.

- Phần Kết luận: Tóm lược lại những gì đã trình bày trong phần thân bài. Ngoài ra các bạn cũng có thể đưa thêm dự đoán (prediction) hoặc lời khuyên để kết thúc bài viết của mình.

 

Dạng bài Problems và Solutions trong IELTS Writing Task 2 có bố cục bài viết đơn giản hơn các loại bài khác, điểm khó duy nhất của dạng này là bạn phải hiểu được vấn đề để tư duy ra giải pháp và hệ quả, cũng như nắm vững từ vựng cho các chủ đề khác nhau.

 

Tham khảo thêm từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề tại đây: https://hoctuvung.hochay.com/tu-vung-ielts.html

Hướng dẫn viết IELTS Writing Task 2 – Problems and Solutions:

  • Dạng bài nguyên nhân (causes) và giải pháp (solutions):

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Each year, the crime rate increases.

What are the causes of crime and what could be done to prevent this rise in criminal activity?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

 

- Phần Giới thiệu:

Giới thiệu chủ đề bài viết:

Crime is an issue of increasing concern around the world.

Tóm tắt nguyên nhân và giải pháp:

The reasons why people commit crime are countless, but drugs and alcohol, social problems and poverty play a major role. To solve these problems, governments can either focus on draconian punishments or improve employment opportunities, invest in good housing projects and tackle drug and alcohol abuse.

 

Dùng cấu trúc "The reason why..." để nêu lên nguyên nhân; cấu trúc "To solve these problems,..." để nói về giải pháp

 

- Phần Thân bài:

Đoạn 1: Giải thích nguyên nhân (causes)

One of the main causes of criminality is the use, sale and trafficking of narcotics. For example, the sale of drugs is organised by armed criminal gangs who illegally traffic drugs and control their business with extreme violence. Drug-related crime does not end there; drug users often steal to fund theft habit, resulting in further acts of petty crime. The social problems connected with the crime are said to be the result of single-parent families, absent role models and bad living conditions. The children from these broken families often become criminals because they feel alienated from society. Poverty is also a reason behind the crime. When unskilled jobs pay so little and prices are so high, it's easy to see why some turn to crime for an income.

 

Topic sentence: One of the main causes of criminality is the use, sale and trafficking of narcotics. Ở đây tác giả dùng cách viết đoạn diễn dịch.

 

Tham khảo thêm cách viết đoạn văn IELTS Writing Task 2 tại: https://hochay.com/luyen-thi-ielts/huong-dan-viet-writing-task-2-ielts-hoc-hay-196.html

 

Đoạn 2: Nêu lên giải pháp (solutions)

Crime can, of course, be dealt with by toughening criminal laws and introducing longer custodial sentences for persistent criminals, but some of the best ways to deal with a crime may be to deal with the social causes. Increasing employment opportunities in poorer areas would improve living standards, which would mean access to affordable housing and education. Government funding for drug and alcohol rehabilitation programmes would help reduce dependency on stimulants and the need for the criminal activity that surrounds them.

 

Topic sentence: Crime can, of course, be dealt with by toughening criminal laws and introducing longer custodial sentences for persistent criminals, but some of the best ways to deal with a crime may be to deal with the social causes. Vẫn dùng cách viết diễn dịch, nêu lên ý chính trước rồi thêm lập luận, ví dụ phía sau.

 

- Phần Kết luận:

In conclusion, crime is a major issue, but cracking down on offenders with a harsh penal system is not the only way. These problems can be solved through the government providing jobs and funding which should raise living standards and dramatically reduce crime levels.

 

  • Dạng bài nguyên nhân (causes) và tác hại (effects):

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Illiteracy has traditionally been viewed as largely a third world problem.

However, it is becoming apparent that in countries such as the USA and Australia, illiteracy is on the increase.

Discuss possible causes for this and its effect on society.

 

Write at least 250 words.

 

- Phần Giới thiệu:

Viết lại đề bài:

It is true that illiteracy is becoming a serious problem in industrialised nations. This is surprising as most people think that this is a problem only in under-developed nations such as in parts of Africa and India.

Nêu tổng quan về nguyên nhân gây ra nạn mù chữ và giới thiệu nội dung bài viết:

Illiteracy is related to many other problems such as poverty, over-population and governmental corruption. Let us take a more detailed look at the causes of this growing problem in many Western nations.

 

- Phần Thân bài: 

Đoạn 1: Nêu lên nguyên nhân (causes) gây ra nạn mù chữ:

One of the most obvious reasons for the increase in illiteracy is the advent of television. Children no longer have to read to obtain information, neither do they have to read to relax. Today children get home from school and go straight to “the box” to watch their favourite program. Watching television is much easier and more exciting than reading.

 

Đoạn 2: Nói đến tác hại, hệ quả (effects) của việc mù chữ:

There are many effects of this growing illiteracy rate. The most obvious is unemployment. This may, in turn, lead to alcohol and drug abuse. Ultimately the economy of the country begins to suffer and there is a drop in living standards.

 

- Phần Kết luận:

To address this problem, parents need to become more aware of their responsibilities and schools need to consider a change in their teaching methods. If this worsening trend is not reversed, the problem of illiteracy will become very serious.

 

  • Dạng bài vấn đề (problems) và giải pháp (solutions):

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Motorways help people travel quickly and cover long distances but they also cause problems. What are the problems of motorways and what solutions are there?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

 

Write at least 250 words.

 

- Phần Giới thiệu:

Viết lại đề bài với từ đồng nghĩa:

Many countries in the world rely on motorways for speedy and efficient transportation, as they are a very convenient way of travelling long distances.

Giới thiệu qua về vấn đề gặp phải và nội dung bài viết:

However, motorways also have negative aspects such as dangerous traffic, damage to the environment and pollution. In this essay, I will look at some of the problems of motorways and how they can be overcome.

 

- Phần Thân bài:

Đoạn 1: Nêu lên vấn đề (problem) + giải pháp cho vấn đề đó (solution): Đường bộ thì nguy hiểm => học lái xe an toàn, biển báo giao thông và hạn chế tốc độ

One major problem of motorways is that they can be dangerous. In many countries, the speed limit on motorways is very high. This means that any accidents are more likely to be serious and involve many vehicles. Sometimes in bad weather, several vehicles crash into each other and many people are killed or injured. This problem could be solved in a number of ways. People could have special lessons on how to drive safely on motorways. In addition, special signs could be displayed when driving conditions are bad to make people drive more slowly and safely. Alternatively, the general speed limit could be reduced slightly.

 

Đoạn 2: Giao thông đường bộ ảnh hưởng đến môi trường => sử dụng phương tiện thân thiện với môi trường, rào chắn tiếng ồn

Secondly, motorways can spoil the environment. Motorways often go through beautiful areas and may damage plants and wildlife. This problem could be avoided by building motorways through less beautiful areas or putting some sections in tunnels. In addition, a large amount of traffic on motorways produces both air pollution and noise pollution. However, governments could help to reduce air pollution by making environmentally-friendly cars cheaper. Noise pollution could be reduced by changing motorway surfaces or by putting up sound-proof fences.

 

*Lưu ý: Người viết gộp chung vấn đề và giải pháp cho từng vấn đề vào cùng một đoạn. Bạn có thể dùng cách viết này nếu bạn có nhiều ý tưởng để viết. Nếu không thì vẫn có thể viết theo cách thông thường là 1 đoạn dành cho vấn đề, 1 đoạn dành cho giải pháp.

 

- Phần Kết luận:

Despite the problems of motorways, they are necessary and useful. With careful preparation and planning, the problems they cause could be reduced. People today are also more aware of environmental issues and as result cars and road transport, in general, are becoming more environmentally friendly.

Từ vựng và cấu trúc ngữ pháp thường dùng trong dạng bài Problems and Solutions IELTS Writing Task 2:

A cause of/ A reason for

Affects/ influences

Leads to/ gives rise to/ brings about

To be affected/ influenced by

To be caused by/ produced by/ result from

To be a consequence of/ to be a result of/ to be due to/ the effect of

As a result of/ As a consequence of

Consequently,/ Thus,/ Therefore,/ Hence,/ For this reason

Owing to/ On account of/ Because of/ Due to the fact that

One of the causes/ The reason is that

Because/ Since/ As

Due to this/ Because of/ Owing to/ Lead to

As a result/ Lead to the problem/ Can attribute to

Make/ Create/ Change/ Effect/ Affect/ Result

Risk of/ Leading to

Bài viết mẫu dạng bài Problems and Solutions IELTS Writing Task 2:

Bài viết 1 - Band 6:

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

The world is experiencing a dramatic increase in population, which is causing problems not only for poor, undeveloped countries, but also for industrialized and developed nations.

Describe some of the problems that overpopulation causes, and suggest at least one possible solution.

You should write at least 250 words.

 

Nowadays, the population increase is increasing dramatically in most countries around the world. This is true for developed and developing nations. Overpopulation cause causes a different number of problems. However, the government can solved solve these problems in many solution ways.

There are several problems that the raising rising number of people in undeveloped countries causes. Firstly, it is very difficult to provide enough food for all people. Secondly, the government limits the number of children per family to educate that are allowed to be educated in school. In addition, in poorest countries usually have a lot of unemployment as well higher unemployment rates, and when the population increases, the number of unemployment increase unemployed increases as well. Finally, when too many people live on the land, the environment suffers.

There are different problems that overpopulation causes in rich nations. Firstly, it is very difficult for governments to provide helpful public services in overcrowded cities. Moreover, there is generally a higher level of crimes being committed, such as drugs abuse, murders, thefts, and ect. Which that which is often cause caused by the high rates of unemployment.

However, overpopulation problems in both developed and undeveloped nations have two main solution solutions which they are deal are dealt with by governments. Firstly, the government must educate people about limiting the size of the family. For example, in China, they have a policy called “one-child policy” which limits the size of the family to one or two children, and this is beginning to have an effect on the world’s most crowded nation.

To sum up, if the impulsive population increase continues, many more people will die of hunger in poor countries. Also, in rich nations, life in the cities will become more and more difficult.

 

Nhận xét:

- Bài viết xử lý vấn đề tốt, nội dung ổn

- Ngữ pháp còn chia sai thì bị động và danh từ số nhiều

- Cấu trúc câu còn một vài chỗ lặp lại và không hoàn chỉnh.

 

Bài viết 2 - band 8:

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

In many countries, the proportion of older people is steadily increasing.

What problems will this cause for individuals and society? Suggest some measures that could be taken to reduce the impact of ageing populations.

You should write at least 250 words.

 

It is true that nowadays people in industrialised nations can expect to live longer than ever before. Although there will undoubtedly be some negative consequences to this trend, societies can take steps to mitigate these potential problems.

As people live longer and the populations of developed countries grow older, several related problems can be anticipated. The main issue is that there will obviously be more people of retirement age who will be eligible to receive a pension. The proportion of younger, working adults will be smaller, and governments will, therefore, receive less money in taxes in relation to the size of the population. In other words, an ageing population will mean a greater tax burden of on working adults. Further pressures will include a rise in the demand for healthcare, and the fact young adults the fact that young adults will increasingly have to look after their elderly relatives.

There are several actions that governments could take to solve the problems described above. Firstly, a simple solution would be to increase the retirement age for working adults, perhaps from 65 to 70. Nowadays, people of this age tend to be healthy enough to continue a productive working life. A second measure would be for governments to encourage immigration in order to increase the number of working adults who pay taxes. Finally, money from national budgets will need to be taken from other areas and spent for on vital healthcare, accommodation and transport facilities for the rising numbers of senior citizens.

In conclusion, various measures can be taken to tackle the problems that are certain to arise as the populations of countries grow older.

 

Nhận xét:

- Bài viết tốt nhưng còn một vài chỗ dùng từ nối máy móc như ở đoạn thân bài thứ 2.

- Thứ tự thông tin đưa ra và cách tổ chức đoạn văn tốt

- Vốn từ vựng tốt và ít lỗi sai

 

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Cách viết Writing Task 2 IELTS - Problems and Solutions - Học Hay

 

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