Sách Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 108: Cụm động từ 1 – Học Hay


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Giáo trình English Grammar in Use – Unit 108: Cụm động từ 1 | Học Hay

Sách Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 108: Cụm động từ 1 – Học Hay

 

Cụm động từ là gì?

-  Phrasal verb là gì? Cụm động từ là từ được cấu tạo từ một động từ với một giới từ, tiểu ngữ hoặc cả hai. Sự kết hợp này tạo ra một nghĩa mới, khác với nghĩa gốc của động từ.


Phrasal verb = verb + preposition/ adverb/ adverb + prepostion

- Cụm động từ trong tiếng anh được chia thành 3 dạng:

a. Verb + particle (Particle phrasal verbs): động từ + tiểu ngữ

- Những tiểu ngữ thường được dùng để tạo thành cụm động từ thường là: around, at, away, down, in, off, on, out, over, round, up.

Ví dụ:

 

    • The show must go on. (go on = continue)
      (Chương trình phải tiếp tục)

    • The plane took off at 10 p.m (took off = flew into the air)
      (Máy bay cất cánh lúc 10 giờ tối)

    • What goes around comes around.
      (Gậy ông đập lưng ông)

- Các phrasal verb loại này giữ vai trò làm ngoại động từ (cần tân ngữ) và nội động từ (không cần tân ngữ)

Ví dụ:

 

    • He suddenly showed up. ⇒ nội động từ
      (Anh ta đột ngột xuất hiện)

  • made up the story. ⇒ ngoại động từ
    (Tôi đã bịa ra câu chuyện đó)

- Với các cụm động từ tiếng anh có tân ngữ theo sau, tiểu ngữ (particle) có thể đứng trước hoặc đứng sau tân ngữ.

Ví dụ:

    • My grandmother raised my sisters up.
      My grandmother raised up my sisters.
      (Ngoại tôi đã nuôi dưỡng các chị của tôi khôn lớn)

    • Put the gun down.
      Put down the gun.
      (Bỏ súng xuống)

- Thông thường, các tân ngữ dài thường được đặt sau particle (tiểu ngữ).

Ví dụ:

    • I don’t want to take on this huge responsibility of being a leader of the team.
      (Tôi không muốn nhận trách nhiệm to lớn là trở thành trưởng nhóm của cả đội)

- Nếu tân ngữ là các đại từ nhân xưng tân ngữ (me, you, him, us, her, them…), thì đại từ này luôn được đặt trước particle (tiểu ngữ).

Ví dụ:

    • You should look it up in the dictionary.
      (Bạn nên tra cứu trong từ điển)

NOT: You should look up it in the dictionary.

 

b. Verb + preposition (Prepositional phrasal verbs): động từ + giới từ

- Cụm động từ dạng này trong tiếng anh luôn cần tân ngữ và tân ngữ này luôn đi sau giới từ.

- Các phrasal verb (dạng Verb + preposition) thông dụng: listen to (lắng nghe), look after (trông nom), get over (vượt qua), break into (đột nhập), break down (hỏng), look for (tìm kiếm)…

Ví dụ:

    • They are looking into the problem.
      (Họ đang xem xét lại vấn đề)

    • Someone broke into my house last night.
      (Có ai đó đã đột nhập vào nhà tôi tối qua)

- Các cụm từ trong tiếng anh, tuy nhiên, có thể tách rời, tân ngữ có thể đứng trước giới từ: associate…with (ủng hộ, cổ vũ ), remind…of (gợi nhớ về điều gì đó), rob…of (tước đoạt), thank…for (cám ơn vì điều gì đó), provide…with (cung cấp)…

Ví dụ:

    • The opponent can rob us of victory.
      (Đối thủ có thể tước đoạt chiến thắng khỏi chúng ta)

    • You remind me of you mom.
      (Con làm ta nhớ tới mẹ)

    • Thank you for helping me.
      (Cảm ơn vì đã giúp đỡ tui)

c. Verb + particle + preposition (Particle prepositional phrasal verbs): động từ + tiểu ngữ + giới từ

- Đây là loại thứ 3 của phrasal verbs. Phần particle và preposition không thể tách rời nhau, nghĩa của từ thường rất khó đoán: look up to (ngưỡng mộ), put up with (chịu đựng), look forward to (mong chờ), get on with (hòa hợp), catch up with (bắt kịp với)….

Ví dụ:

    • I can’t put up with your girlfriend anymore.
      (Mẹ không thể chịu đựng được bạn gái con nữa rồi)

    • I’m looking forward to hearing from you.
      (Tôi rất mong nhận được tin tức từ bạn)

- Tân ngữ của dạng Verb + particle + preposition luôn luôn đứng ngay sau giới từ.

Ví dụ:

    • We all look up to our father.
      (Tất cả chúng tôi đều kính trọng cha mình)

NOT: We all look our father up to. hay We all look up our father to.

- Tuy nhiên, một số cụm từ tiếng anh vẫn có thể tách rời, tân ngữ có thể đứng ngay sau động từ: fix…up with (sắp xếp, bố trí), put…down to (nghĩ nguyên nhân là), let…in on (nói cho ai biết điều bí mật nào đó), take… out of (trích, rút 1 khoản tiền ra từ số tiền lớn), put…up to (cổ vũ khuyến khích ai làm điều gì ngu ngốc)

Ví dụ:

    • The police put the fire dow to cigarette ash.
      (Cảnh sát nghĩ nguyên nhân của vụ cháy là do tàn thuốc lá)

  • My teacher fixed me up with a different test.
    (Giáo viên của tôi đã sắp xếp cho tôi 1 bài kiểm tra khác)

 

 

Bài tập Sách Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 108: Cụm động từ 1 – Học Hay

PART 1

A Complete each sentence using a verb from A (in the correct form) + a word from B.

A

B

be           get         fly          sit

break    get         go          speak

come     get         look       take

away     by           on          round

back       down    off          up

back       down    out         up

 

1 Sarah is leaving tomorrow and coming back on Saturday.

2 I’ve been standing a long time. I’m going to …………….for a bit.

3 It’s a very busy airport. There are planes landing and………… all the time.

4 A cat tried to catch the bird, but it………… just in time.

5 We were trapped in the building. We couldn’t………… .

6 I can’t hear you very well. Can you………… a little?

7 Ben’s salary is very low, but it’s enough to………… .

8 Everything is so expensive now. Prices have …………a lot.

9 I heard a noise behind me, so I …………to see what it was.

10 I’m going out now to do some shopping. I’ll …………in about an hour.

11 Our car………… on the motorway and we had to call for help.

12 How is your new job? How are you………… ?

B Complete each sentence using a word from A and a word from B.

A

B

away     in            up           back

out         up          up           forward

at            to           with       about

at            to           with       through

 

1 You’re walking too fast. I can’t keep up with you.

2 My holidays are nearly over. Next week I’ll be …………work.

3 We went………… the top floor of the building to admire the view.

4 The meeting tomorrow is going to be difficult. I’m not looking………… it.

5 There was a bank robbery last week. The robbers got …………£50,000.

6 I love to look………… the stars in the night sky.

7 I was sitting in the kitchen when a bird flew………… the open window.

8 How do you know about the plan? How did you find …………it?

C Complete the sentences. Use these phrasal verbs + it/them/me:

get out                 give back             switch on            take off                     throw away   wake up

 

1 I want to keep this box. Don’t throw it away.

2 I’m going to bed now. Can you …………at 6.30?

3 I’ve got something in my eye and I can’t ………….

4 I don’t like it when people borrow things and don’t………… .

5 I want to use the hair dryer. How do I …………?

6 My shoes are dirty. I’d better …………before going into the house.

D Complete the sentences. Use the word in brackets.

1 Don’t throw away this box . I want to keep it. (away)

2 I don’t want this newspaper. You can throw it away . (away)

3 These books are Lisa’s. I have to give …………to her. (back)

4 We can turn………… . Nobody is watching it. (off)

5 Shh! My mother is asleep. I don’t want to wake………… . (up)

6 It’s cold today. You should put………… if you go out. (on)

7 It was only a small fire. I was able to put………… easily. (out)

8 It’s a bit dark in this room. Shall I turn………… ? (on)

9 A: The hotel is more expensive than when we stayed here last year.

B: Yes, they’ve put………… . (up)

10 A: How did the vase get broken?

B: I’m afraid I knocked …………while I was cleaning. (over)

 

PART 2

A Complete the sentences.

1 Here’s a key so that you can let yourself in.

2 Lisa doesn’t like cooking, so she ……………..out a lot.

3 If you’re in our part of town, you should………… in and say hello.

4 Could you………… in this questionnaire? It will only take five minutes.

5 Amy isn’t living in this house any more. She………… out a few weeks ago.

6 After breakfast, we …………out of the hotel and got a taxi to the airport.

7 I wanted to charge my phone, but there was nowhere to …………the charger in.

8 Paul started doing a Spanish course, but he …………out after a few weeks.

9 Be careful! The water isn’t very deep here, so don’t………… in.

B Complete the sentences with in, into, out or out of.

1 I’ve got a new flat. I’m moving in on Friday.

2 We arrived at the hotel and checked ………….

3 When are you moving………… your new flat?

4 The car stopped and the driver got………… .

5 Thieves broke …………the house and stole some jewellery.

6 How did the thieves break………… ? Through a window?

7 He opened his wallet and something fell………… .

8 Kate was angry and walked………… the meeting.

C Complete the sentences using a verb + in or out (of).

1 Lisa walked to the edge of the pool, dived in and swam to the other end.

2 Not all the runners finished the race. Three of them………… .

3 I went to see Joe and Sophie in their new house. They………… last week.

4 I’ve told you everything you need to know. I don’t think I’ve………… anything.

5 Some people in the crowd started singing. Then a few more people………… and soon everybody was singing.

6 Don’t be………… by him. If I were you, I wouldn’t believe anything he says.

7 I …………to see Laura a few days ago. She was fine.

D Complete the sentences. Use the word in brackets in the correct form.

1 A: The fridge isn’t working.

B: That’s because you haven’t plugged it in . (plug)

2 A: What do I have to do with these forms?

B: …………and send them to this address. (fill)

3 A: I’ve made a mistake on this form.

B: That’s OK. Just …………and correct it. (cross)

4 A: Have you been to the new club I told you about?

B: No. We went there, but they wouldn’t …………because we weren’t members. (let)

5 A: Can we meet tomorrow at ten?

B: Probably. I have another meeting, but I think I can………… . (get)

E Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use a verb from Sections B or C.

1 Let’s go to a restaurant tonight. => Let’s eat out tonight.

2 Why didn’t you finish college? => Why did you …………?

3 Please complete the application form. => Please …………form .

4 I can’t avoid going to the party. => I can’t …………to the party.

5 I thought the email was genuine, but it wasn’t. => I was completely …………the email .

6 You must come and see us sometime. => You must …………sometime.

7 Steve was upset because he wasn’t chosen for the team. => Steve was upset because he………… the team.

 

PART 3

A Which words can go together? Choose from the list.

a candle               a fire      a light                   a new product        an order          a problem

 

1 turn out a light

2 blow out ……………………

3 carry out ……………

4 put out……………

5 try out……………

6 sort out……………

B Complete the sentences using a verb + out.

1 The company is trying out a new computer system at the moment.

2 Steve is very fit. He does a lot of sport and ……………regularly.

3 The road will be closed for two days while building work is …………….

4 We didn’t manage to discuss everything at the meeting. We ……………of time.

5 You have to ……………the problem yourself. I can’t do it for you.

6 I need to ……………what happened exactly. It’s not clear at the moment.

7 The new drug will be…………… on a small group of patients.

8 I thought the two books were the same until someone…………… the difference.

9 They got married a few years ago, but it didn’t…………… and they separated.

10 There was a power cut and all the lights…………… .

11 We thought she was American at first, but she…………… to be Swedish.

12 Sometimes it ……………cheaper to eat in a restaurant than to cook at home.

13 How did you ……………about the project? Did somebody tell you?

14 It took firefighters two hours to ……………the fire.

15 I can’t ……………how the water is getting into the house.

C For each picture, complete the sentence using a verb + out.

"

D Complete the sentences. Each time use a verb + out.

1 A: Was the fire serious?

B: No, we were able to put it out .

2 A: This recipe looks interesting.

B: Yes, let’s …………….

3 A: How much money do I owe you exactly?

B: Just a moment. I’ll have to …………….

4 A: What happened about your problem with your bank?

B: It’s OK now. I went to see them and we…………… .

5 A: You’ve written the wrong date on this form.

B: Oh, so I have. Thanks for…………… .

 

PART 4

A Complete the sentences using put on + the following:

some music        the heating         the kettle            the light               the oven

 

1 It was getting dark, so I put the light on .

2 It was getting cold, so I………………… .

3 I wanted to bake a cake, so I…………… .

4 I wanted to make some tea, so I…………… .

5 I wanted to relax, so I…………… .

B Complete the sentences. Use a verb + on or off.

1 It was hot in the cinema, so I took off my jacket.

2 What are all these people doing? What’s…………… ?

3 The weather was too bad for the plane to…………… , so the flight was delayed.

4 Rachel got into her car and ……………at high speed.

5 Tim is too thin. He needs to…………… weight.

6 We spent the whole day walking. We ……………at 8 am and walked for ten hours.

7 Don’t ……………until tomorrow what you can do today.

8 They’ve changed their minds about getting married. The wedding has been…………… .

9 Are you cold? Shall I get you a sweater to…………… ?

10 I ……………some jeans in the shop, but they were too tight.

11 When I go away, I prefer to be alone at the station or airport. I don’t like it when people come to ……………me…………… .

12 I need to make an appointment to see the dentist, but I keep…………… it…………… .

C Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

"

Đáp án

PART 1

A

2 sit down

3 taking off

4 flew away / flew off

5 get out

6 speak up

7 get by

8 gone up

9 looked round

10 be back

11 broke down

12 getting on

B

2 back at

3 up to

4 forward to

5 away with

6 up at

7 in through

8 out about

C

2 wake me up

3 get it out

4 give them back

5 switch it on

6 take them off

D

3 I have to give them back to her.

4 We can turn the TV/television off. or We can turn off the TV/television.

5 I don’t want to wake her up.

6 (example answer) You should put your coat on

or You should put on your coat.

7 I was able to put it out

8 Shall I turn the light(s) on? or

Shall I turn on the light(s)?

9 (example answer) they’ve put the price(s) up

or they’ve put up the price(s)

10 I knocked it over

PART 2

A

2 eats

3 drop

4 fill

5 moved

6 checked

7 plug

8 dropped

9 dive

B

2 in

3 into

4 out

5 into

6 in

7 out

8 out of

C

2 dropped out

3 moved in

4 left out

5 joined in

6 taken in

7 dropped in

D

2 Fill them in or Fill them out

3 cross it out

4 let us in

5 get out of it

E

2 drop out of college

3 fill in / fill out the application form

4 get out of going to the party

5 taken in by the email

6 drop in (and see us) sometime

7 was left out of the team or had been left out …

PART 3

A

2 a candle

3 an order

4 a fire

5 a new product

6 a problem

B

2 works out

3 carried out

4 ran out

5 sort out

6 find out / work out / figure out

7 tried out

8 pointed out

9 work out

10 went out

11 turned out

12 works out / turns out

13 find out

14 put out

15 figure out / work out

C

2 giving/handing out

3 turned out nice/fine/sunny

4 working out

5 run out of

6 work out how to use the camera or figure out how to …

D

2 try it out

3 work it out

4 sorted it out / worked it out

5 pointing it out

PART 4

A

2 put the heating on

3 put the oven on

4 put the kettle on

5 put some music on

B

2 going on

3 take off

4 drove off / went off

5 put on

6 set off

7 put off

8 called off

9 put on

10 tried on

11 see (me) off

12 putting (it) off

C

2 took off

3 tried on a/the hat or

tried a/the hat on

4 was called off

5 see him off

6 put them on

 

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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 108: Cụm động từ 1 – Học Hay

 

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