Sách Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 40: Câu bị động – Học Hay


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Giáo trình English Grammar in Use – Unit 40: Câu bị động | Học Hay

Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 40: Câu bị động - HocHay

Để chuyển đổi câu chủ động thành câu bị động trong tiếng anh, ta cần:

Bước 1: Chuyển tân ngữ chủ động thành chủ ngữ bị động

Ví dụ:

  • My brother wrote a letter. → A letter was written by my brother.
    (Lá thư được viết bởi em trai tôi)
    ⇒ 'A letter' làm tân ngữ cho câu chủ động được chuyển thành chủ ngữ cho câu bị động.
  • Is she going to steal my car? → Is my car going to be stolen?
    (Có phải xe tôi sắp bị lấy trộm không?)

Bước 2: Chia động từ cho thể bị động

Thì Chủ động Công thức bị động Ví dụ
Hiện tại đơn V-s/-es am/is/are + V3/-ed Anh delivers chicken every evening.
→ Chicken is delivered by Anh every evening.
(Gà được vận chuyển bởi Anh mỗi tối)
Hiện tại tiếp diễn  be + V-ing am/is/are + being + V3/-ed He is asking me a lot of questions.
→ I am being asked a lot of questions by him.
(Tôi đang bị anh ấy hỏi rất nhiều câu hỏi)
Hiện tại hoàn thành have/has + V3/-ed have/has + been + V3 I have cooked dinner.
→ The dinner has been cooked by me.
(Bữa tối được nấu bởi tôi)
Quá khứ đơn V2/-ed was/were + V3/-ed My mother wrote a book.
→ The book was written by my mother.
(Cuốn sách được viết bởi mẹ tôi)
Quá khứ tiếp diễn  was/ were + V-ing was/were + being + V3/-ed My brother was doing his homework.
→ His homework was being done.
(Bài tập về nhà của anh ấy đã được làm xong)
Quá khứ hoàn thành had + V3/-ed had + been + V3/-ed They had hold a party for her birthday.
→ A party had been hold for her birthday.
(Một bữa tiệc được tổ chức cho sinh nhật của cô ấy)
Tương lai đơn will/ shall + V bare will/shall + be + V3/-ed I’ll bring food for the picnic.
→ Food for the picnic will be brought by me
(Thức ăn cho buổi picnic được tôi mang theo)
Trương lai hoàn thành will/shall + have + V3/-ed will/shall + have + been + V3/-ed He will have read this book.
→ This book will have been read by him.
(Quyển sách sẽ được đọc)
Tương lai gần

is/am/are + going to  + V bare

is/am/are + going to be

+ V3/-ed

They're going to uninstall the app next month.
→ The app is going to be uninstalled next month.
(App sẽ bị gỡ bỏ vào tháng tới)
Modal verb can/ may/ must + V bare can/ may/ must + be + V3/-ed Nam can answer this question.
→ This question can be answered by Nam.
(Câu hỏi này có thể được trả lời bởi Nam)
Cấu trúc với have/ has to have/ has to + V bare have/ has to + be + V3/-ed You have to finish your tasks quickly.
→ All your tasks have to be finished quickly.
(Con nên làm tất cả bài tập nhanh lên đi)
Câu điều kiện would + V bare would + be + V3/-ed I would buy a car if I had money.
→ A car would be bought if I had money.
(Tôi mà có tiền là tôi mua xe rồi)
Perfect conditional sentence would + have + V3/-ed would + have + been + V3/-ed If I had had a wide yard, I would have planed a lot of flowers.
→ A lot of flowers would have been planed if I had had a wide yard.
(Sẽ có rất nhiều hoa được trồng tại nhà nếu tôi có một mảnh sân rộng)
Present infinitive to V to be V3/-ed  
Perfect infinitive to have V3/-ed to have been + V3/-ed  
Gerund V-ing Being + V3/-ed  

Các loại thì cơ bản trong tiếng anh


Bước 3: Chuyển chủ ngữ chủ động thành by + tân ngữ bị động

  • Ví dụ: I make this card. → This card is made by me.
    (Tấm thiệp này được làm bởi tôi)

Lưu ý:

- Các đại từ như me, you, him, them, people, someone, … hoặc không quan trọng, không rõ ràng thường được loại bỏ.

  • Ví dụ: Someone has sent me flowers.
    (Một người nào đó gửi cho tôi hoa)
    → I have been sent flowers.

- Khi người thực hiện hành động hoặc tác nhân của hành động là dụng cụ thì ta dùng with thay cho by

  • Ví dụ: The door was smashed with a hammer.
    (Cánh cửa được đập vỡ bằng 1 chiếc búa)

cau bi dong

Bước 4: Vị trí của trạng ngữ trong cấu trúc bị động

- Trạng từ/trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn đứng trước by + tân ngữ bị động

  • Ví dụ: I have found the book in the closet.
    → The book has been found in the closet by me.
    (Cuốn sách được tôi tìm thấy trong tủ)

- Trạng từ/trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian đứng sau by + tân ngữ bị động

  • Ví dụ: My dad bought a car yesterday.
    → A car was bought by my dad yesterday.
    (Một chiếc xe hơi được cha tôi mua hôm qua).

- Trạng từ/trạng ngữ chỉ cách thức thường đứng giữa động từ be và phân từ quá khứ

  • Ví dụ: Huong has studied for the exam carefully.
    → The exam has been carefully studied by Huong.
    (Bài kiểm tra được Hương học kĩ càng)

 

3. Một số lưu ý trong passive form

- Các động từ mô tả trạng thái hay tình huống ít khi được chuyển qua câu bị động.

  • Ví dụ: They are having dinner. (Họ đang ăn tối)
    NOT: Dinner is being eatten.

- Có 1 số động từ được dùng thường xuyên trong câu bị động hơn là chủ động: be born (được sinh ra – luôn được dùng ở thì quá khứ), be populated (ở, định dân, cư ngụ), be stranded (bị lâm vào hoàn cảnh khó khăn, bị mắc kẹt lại), be taken aback (bị shock).

Ví dụ:

  • I was born in Ha Noi. (Tôi sinh ra tại Hà Nội)
  • Lots of passengers were stranded at Tan Son Nhat airport due to the heavy rain.
    (Rất nhiều hành khách bị mắc kẹt lại sân bay Tân Sơn Nhất vì cơn mưa lớn)

- Các liên động từ không được chuyển qua câu bị động trong tiếng anh .

- Các nội động từ từ không được chuyển qua dạng bị động.

Bài tập Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 40: Câu bị động - HocHay

A Complete the sentences. Use these verbs in the correct form, present or past:

cause    damage                find        hold       injure    invite

make     overtake              own       send      show     surround

 

1 Many accidents are caused by careless driving.

2 Cheese ……………..from milk.

3 The roof of the building ……………..in a storm a few days ago.

4 A cinema is a place where films ……………...

5 You ……………..to the party. Why didn’t you go?

6 This plant is very rare. It…………….. in very few places.

7 Although we were driving fast, we ……………..by a lot of other cars.

8 In the US, elections for president ……………..every four years.

9 There was an accident last night, but fortunately nobody ……………...

10 You can’t see the house from the road. It ……………..by trees.

11 I never received the letter. It ……………..to the wrong address.

12 The company I work for ……………..by a much larger company.

B Write questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past.

1 Ask about glass. (how / make?) => How is glass made?

2 Ask about television. (when / invent?)

3 Ask about mountains. (how / form?)

4 Ask about DNA. (when / discover?)

5 Ask about silver. (what / use for?)

C Put the verb into the correct form, present or past, active or passive.

1 a Two hundred people are employed (employ) by the company.

b The company employs (employ) 200 people.

2 a Water ………………(cover) most of the earth’s surface.

b How much of the earth’s surface ……………… (cover) by water?

3 a While I was on holiday, my camera ……………… (steal) from my hotel room.

b While I was on holiday, my camera ……………… (disappear) from my hotel room.

4 a Robert’s parents ……………… (die) when he was very young.

b Robert and his sister ……………… (bring up) by their grandparents.

5 a The boat hit a rock and ……………… (sink) quickly.

b Fortunately everybody ……………… (rescue).

6 a Bill ……………… (fire) from his job. He wasn’t very good at it.

b Sue ……………… (resign) from her job because she didn’t enjoy it any more.

7 a It can be noisy living here, but it ……………… (not / bother) me.

b It can be noisy living here, but I ……………… (not / bother) by it.

8 a Maria had an accident. She (knock) off her bike.

b Maria had an accident. She ……………… (fall) off her bike.

9 a I haven’t seen these flowers before. What ……………… (they / call)?

b I haven’t seen these flowers before. What ……………… (you / call) them?

D Instead of using somebody, they, people etc., write a passive sentence.

1 Somebody cleans the room every day. => The room is cleaned every day.

2 They cancelled all flights because of fog.

All……………… .

3 Somebody accused me of stealing money.

………………money.

4 How do you use this word?

How ………………used?

5 The price includes all taxes.

All ………………in the price.

6 People warned us not to go out alone.

We ……………….

7 We don’t use this office any more.

This……………… .

8 They invited five hundred people to the wedding.

Five hundred……………… .

 

E Complete these sentences. Use the following verbs in the passive:

arrest    carry      cause    delay     do           forget   keep      knock    know     make     repair                 send

 

Sometimes you need have (might have, would have etc.).

1 The situation is serious. Something must be done before it’s too late.

2 I haven’t received the letter yet. It might have been sent to the wrong address.

3 A decision will not ………………….until the next meeting.

4 These documents are important. They should always…………………. in a safe place.

5 This road is in bad condition. It should ………………….a long time ago.

6 The injured man couldn’t walk and had to …………………..

7 If you hadn’t shouted at the policeman, you wouldn’t…………………. .

8 I’m not sure what time I’ll arrive tomorrow. I may…………………. .

9 It’s not certain how the fire started. It might ………………….by an electrical fault.

10 A new school is being built. The old one is going to ………………….down.

11 The election is next Sunday. The full results will ………………….on Tuesday.

12 Last week they weren’t speaking to one another. Now they’re happy again. The problem seems to…………………..

F Make sentences from the words in brackets. Sometimes the verb is active, sometimes passive.

1 There’s somebody behind us. (We / follow) We’re being followed.

2 This door is a different colour, isn’t it? (you / paint?) Have you painted it?

3 My bike has disappeared. (It / steal!) It………………….

4 My umbrella has disappeared. (Somebody / take) Somebody………………….

5 A neighbour of mine disappeared six months ago.

(He / not / see / since then) He………………….

6 I wonder how Jessica is these days.

(I / not / see / for ages) I………………….

7 A friend of mine was stung by a bee recently.

(you / ever / sting / bee?) ………………….you………………….

8 The bridge was damaged recently.

(It / repair / at the moment) It………………….

9 Tom’s car was stolen recently.

(It / not / find / yet) ………………….

10 I went into the room and saw that the table and chairs were not in the same place.

(The furniture / move) The………………….

G Instead of using ‘somebody’, ‘they’ etc., write a passive sentence.

1 Somebody has cleaned the room. The room has been cleaned.

2 They are building a new road around the city.

A ………………….around the city.

3 They have built two new hotels near the airport.

Two ………………….near the airport.

4 When I last visited, they were building some new houses here.

When I last visited, some…………………. .

5 The meeting is now on 15 April. They have changed the date.

The date of…………………. .

6 I didn’t know that somebody was recording our conversation.

I didn’t know that our…………………. .

7 Is anyone doing anything about the problem?

………………….anything ………………….the problem?

8 The windows were very dirty. Nobody had cleaned them for ages.

The windows were very dirty. They………………….

Đáp án

A

2 is made

3 was damaged

4 are shown

5 were invited

6 ’s/is found

7 were overtaken

8 are held

9 was injured

10 is surrounded

11 was sent

12 is owned

B

2 When was television invented?

3 How are mountains formed?

4 When was DNA discovered?

5 What is silver used for?

C

2 a covers

b is covered

3 a was stolen

b disappeared

4 a died

b were brought up

5 a sank

b was rescued

6 a was fired

b resigned

7 a doesn’t bother

b ’m/am not bothered

8 a was knocked

b fell

9 a are they called

b do you call

D

2 All flights were cancelled because of fog.

3 I was accused of stealing money.

4 How is this word used?

5 All taxes are included in the price.

6 We were warned not to go out alone.

7 This office isn’t / is not used any more.

8 Five hundred people were invited to the wedding.

E

3 be made

4 be kept

5 have been repaired

6 be carried

7 have been arrested

8 be delayed

9 have been caused

10 be knocked

11 be known

12 have been forgotten

F

3 It’s been stolen! / It has been stolen!

4 Somebody has taken it. or … taken my umbrella.

5 He hasn’t been seen since then.

6 I haven’t seen her for ages.

7 Have you ever been stung by a bee?

8 It’s / It is being repaired at the moment.

9 It hasn’t / It has not been found yet.

10 The furniture had been moved.

G

2 A new road is being built

3 Two new hotels have been built

4 some new houses were being built

5 The date of the meeting has been changed.

6 I didn’t know that our conversation was being recorded.

7 Is anything being done about the problem?

8 They hadn’t / had not been cleaned for ages.

 

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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 40: Câu bị động – Học Hay

 

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