Sách Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 63: Mạo từ xác định THE – Học Hay


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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 63: Mạo từ xác định THE – Học Hay

1. Mạo từ xác định là gì?

Mạo từ xác định (definite article): the – được dùng với các danh từ (số nhiều và số ít) đã xác định hoặc những danh từ được nhắc đến lần thứ hai, thứ ba mà người nói lẫn người nghe đều biết về nó.

2. Cách dùng mạo từ The: 

Mạo từ “The”  trong tiếng anh được dùng trước danh từ chỉ người, vật, sự việc đã được xác định:

- Trường hợp 1:

Mạo từ xác định the được dùng để diễn tả một (hoặc nhiều) người, vật mà cả người nói và người nghe đều biết đối tượng được đề cập tới.

Ví dụ:


    • Mom is in the garden. (Mẹ đang ở trong vườn)
      → người nói và người nghe đều biết khu vườn đó

    • Did you finish the book?
      (Cậu đã đọc xong quyển sách đó chưa?)
      → người nói và người nghe đều biết quyển sách đó

- Trường hợp 2: Khi đối tượng được nhắc đến lần thứ hai.


    • Ví dụ: We got a new book. The book is very interesting.
      (Chúng tôi vừa mới mua một quyển sách mới. Quyển sách rất thú vị)

- Trường hợp 3: Mạo từ the được dùng với danh từ chỉ có duy nhất trên đời.


    • Ví dụ: the moon, the sun, the sky, the  earth …

- Trường hợp 4: Khi danh từ được xác định bởi một cụm từ hoặc một mệnh đề theo sau nó.


    • Ví dụ: The girl who you met yesterday is my friend.
      (Con bé mày tán hôm qua là bạn tao đấy)

- Trường hợp 5:

Dùng với một tính từ tron cấu trúc “the + adjective” khi muốn đề cập tới một nhóm người.


    • Ví dụ: In developing countries, the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer.
      (Ở các nước đang phát triển, người giàu thì giàu hơn còn người nghèo thì nghèo hơn)

- Trường hợp 6:

Mạo từ xác định trong tiếng anh còn được dùng trong cấu trúc so sánh nhất, số thứ tự và cấu trúc the only + Noun.

Ví dụ:


    • She is the tallest student in my class.
      (Em đó là học sinh cao nhất lớp tôi đấy)

    • I'm the only one whom she talks to.
      (Tôi là người duy nhất mà con bé nói chuyện)

    • The third prize goes to Mr. Thomas.
      (Giải ba thuộc về ông Thomas)


Cấu trúc so sánh của tính từ - trạng từ

Các mệnh đề tiếng anh thường gặp


- Trường hợp 7: Dùng với tên gọi của các tờ báo, các quyển sách


    • Ví dụ: The Daily New, The Wall Street, …

- Trường hợp 8: Dùng với các danh từ chỉ nhạc cụ.


    • Ví dụ: play the guitar, play the piano, …

- Trường hợp 9:

Dùng để chỉ vị trí địa lý như sông núi, đại dương, sông hồ, quần đảo, sa mạc, …(danh từ thuộc về địa lý)


    • Ví dụ:  The Sahara, The Thames…, The  Pacific Ocean, The  Canal…

- Trường hợp 10: Dùng với các tên nước có chữ kingdom, states hoặc republic


    • Ví dụ: The United Kingdom (Vương Quốc Anh), The United States of America (USA - Hoa Kỳ), The Republic of Ireland (Cộng Hòa Ireland)

- Trường hợp 11: Dùng để chỉ người của 1 nước:


    • Ví dụ: The Vietnameses (những người Việt Nam), the Netherlands (những người Hà Lan)…

- Trường hợp 12:

Dùng với tên của các tổ chức, công công trình kiến trúc, các chuỗi khách sạn hoặc nhà hàng


    • Ví dụ: the ASEAN, the Eiffel Tower, the Hoang Yen

- Trường hợp 13: Đi với họ của một người ở số nhiều để chỉ cả một gia đình.


  • Ví dụ: The Smiths (nhà Smith), the Kardashians (nhà Kardashian)

Bài tập Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 63: Mạo từ xác định THE – Học Hay

A Put in the or a where necessary. If no word is necessary, leave the space empty.

1 A: Our apartment is on the tenth floor.

B: Is it? I hope there’s …………lift.

2 A: Did you have ………nice holiday?

B: Yes, it was……… best holiday I’ve ever had.

3 A: Where’s……… nearest shop?

B: There’s one at ………end of this street.

4 A: It’s ………lovely day, isn’t it?

B: Yes, there isn’t ………cloud in……… sky.

5 A: We spent all our money because we stayed at ………most expensive hotel in town.

B: Why didn’t you stay at……… cheaper hotel?

6 A: Would you like to travel in ………space?

B: Yes, I’d love to go to ………moon.

7 A: What did you think of ………movie last night?

B: It was OK, but I thought ………ending was a bit strange.

8 A: What’s Jupiter? Is it ………star?

B: No, it’s ………planet. It’s ………largest planet in ………solar system.

B Which is right? (For the, see also Unit 72.)

1 I haven’t been to cinema / the cinema for ages. (the cinema is correct)

2 Sarah spends most of her free time watching TV / the TV.

3 Do you ever listen to radio / the radio?

4 Television / The television was on, but nobody was watching it.

5 Have you had dinner / the dinner yet?

6 It’s confusing when two people have same name / the same name.

7 What do you want for breakfast / for the breakfast?

8 Fruit is an important source of vitamin C / the vitamin C.

9 This computer is not connected to internet / the internet.

10 I lay down on ground / the ground and looked up at sky / the sky.

11 Next train / The next train to London leaves from platform 3 / the platform 3.

C Put in the or a where necessary. (For a and the see also Units 71–72.)

1 Sun is star. => The sun is a star.

2 I’m fed up with doing same thing every day.

3 Room 25 is on second floor.

4 It was very hot day. It was hottest day of year.

5 We had lunch in nice restaurant by sea.

6 What’s on at cinema this week?

7 I had big breakfast this morning.

8 You’ll find information you need at top of page 15.

D Complete the sentences. Choose from the box and use the where necessary.

breakfast             cinema                                 gate       Gate 24                lunch     question              question 3                 sea

 

1 I’m hungry. It’s time for lunch .

2 There was no wind, so ………was very calm.

3 Most of the questions in the test were OK, but I couldn’t answer……… .

4 ‘I’m going to……… tonight.’ ‘Are you? What are you going to see?’

5 I’m sorry, but could you repeat……… , please?

6 I didn’t have ………this morning because I was in a hurry.

7 (airport announcement) Flight AB123 to Rome is now boarding at……… .

8 I forgot to shut……… . Can you shut it for me?

 

E Complete the sentences with school or the school.

1 Why aren’t your children at school today? Are they ill?

2 When he was younger, Ben hated…………… , but he enjoys it now.

3 There were some parents waiting outside………… to meet their children.

4 What time does………… start in the morning?

5 How do your children get to and from …………? Do you take them?

6 What was the name of …………you attended?

7 What does Emily want to do when she leaves………… ?

8 My children walk to………… . …………isn’t very far.

F Which is right?

1 a Where is university / the university? Is it near here? (the university is correct)

b Neil left school and got a job. He didn’t want to go to university / the university.

c In your country, what proportion of the population study at university / the university?

d This is a small town, but university / the university is the biggest in the country.

2 a My brother has always been healthy. He’s never been in hospital / the hospital.

b When my friend was ill, I went to hospital / the hospital to see her.

c When I was visiting my friend, I met Lisa, who is a nurse at hospital / the hospital.

d I saw an accident. A woman was injured and was taken to hospital / the hospital.

3 a Why is she in prison / the prison? What crime did she commit?

b There was a fire at prison / the prison. Firefighters were called to put it out.

c Do you think too many people are sent to prison / the prison?

4 a John’s mother is a regular churchgoer. She goes to church / the church every Sunday.

b John himself doesn’t go to church / the church.

c The village is very nice. You should visit church / the church. It’s interesting.

G Complete the sentences. Choose from the box.

bed

the bed

in bed

home

home

at home

like home

work

to work

after worK

 

1 How did you get home after the party?

2 How do you usually go ……………..in the morning? By bus?

3 Sam likes to go to ………….early and get up early.

4 I don’t have my phone. I left it…………. .

5 ‘Have you seen my keys?’ ‘Yes, they’re on…………. .’

6 Shall we meet…………. tomorrow evening?

7 I like to read ………….before going to sleep.

8 It was a long tiring journey. We arrived ………….very late.

9 Tom usually finishes ………….at five o’clock.

10 It’s nice to travel around, but there’s no place…………. .

H Complete the sentences. Choose at/in/to + hospital, school etc.

bed        home    hospital                hospital                prison   school   university            work

 

1 Kate’s mother has to have an operation. She’ll be in hospital for a few days.

2 In your country, from what age do children have to go…………. ?

3 Mark didn’t go out last night. He stayed…………. .

4 There is a lot of traffic in the morning when people are going…………. .

5 When Sophie leaves school, she wants to study psychology…………. .

6 Ben never gets up before 9 o’clock. It’s 8.30 now, so he is still…………. .

7 The accident wasn’t serious. Nobody had to go…………. .

8 If people commit crimes, they may end up…………. .

 

I Choose four of these things and write what you think about them:

bananas               boxing  cats       crowds                 fast        food      horror   movies

hot         weather               maths   opera    snow     supermarkets    zoos

 

Use: I like … / I don’t like … I think ... is/are … I don’t mind …

I love … / I hate … I’m (not) interested in …

1 I don’t like hot weather very much.

J Which is right?

1 a Apples / The apples are good for you. (Apples is correct)

b Look at apples / the apples on that tree. They’re very big.

2 a Who are people / the people in this picture?

b It annoys me when people / the people throw rubbish on the ground.

3 a My memory isn’t good. I’m not good at remembering names / the names.

b What were names / the names of those people we met last night?

4 a First World War / The First World War began in 1914 and ended in 1918.

b A pacifist is somebody who is against war / the war.

5 a He’s lazy. He doesn’t like hard work / the hard work.

b Did you finish work / the work you were doing yesterday?

K Complete the sentences using the following. Use the where necessary.

(the) basketball                (the) grass          (the) patience   (the) people

(the) questions                                 (the) meat          (the) information             (the) hotels

(the) biology      (the) water         (the) spiders      (the) lies

 

1 My favourite sport is basketball .

2 The information we were given wasn’t correct.

3 Some people are afraid of…………….. .

4 A vegetarian is somebody who doesn’t eat…………….. .

5 The test wasn’t hard. I answered…………….. without difficulty.

6 Do you know…………….. who live in the flat next to yours?

7 ……………..is the study of plants and animals.

8 It’s better to tell the truth. Telling ……………..often causes problems.

9 We couldn’t find anywhere to stay in the town. ……………..were all full.

10 Don’t swim in this pool. ……………..doesn’t look very clean.

11 Don’t sit on…………….. . It’s wet after the rain.

12 You need ……………..to teach young children.

L Which is right?

1 Steve is very good at telling stories / the stories.

2 I can’t sing this song. I don’t know words / the words.

3 Don’t stay in that hotel. It’s noisy and rooms / the rooms are very small.

4 I don’t have a car, so I use public transport / the public transport most of the time.

5 All books / All the books on the top shelf belong to me.

6 Life / The life is strange sometimes. Some very strange things happen.

7 We enjoyed our holiday. Weather / The weather was good.

8 Everybody needs water / the water to live.

9 I don’t like films / the films with unhappy endings

 

M Answer the questions. Choose the right answer from the box. Don’t forget the.

"

1 a Which of the animals is the tallest? => the giraffe

b Which animal can run the fastest?

c Which of these animals is found in Australia?

2 a Which of these birds has a long neck?

b Which of these birds cannot fly?

c Which bird flies at night?

3 a Which of these inventions is the oldest?

b Which one is the most recent?

c Which one was especially important for astronomy?

4 a What is the currency of India?

b What is the currency of Canada?

c And the currency of your country?

N Put in the or a.

1 When was the telephone invented?

2 Can you play ………….musical instrument?

3 Jessica plays …………violin in an orchestra.

4 There was …………piano in the corner of the room.

5 I wish I could play …………piano.

6 Our society is based on …………family.

7 Martin comes from …………large family.

8 …………computer has changed the way we live.

9 When was …………bicycle invented?

10 Do you have …………car?

O Complete these sentences. Use the + adjective. Choose from:

elderly                  injured                 rich         sick         unemployed      young

 

1 The young have the future in their hands.

2 Helen is a nurse. She’s spent her life caring for………… .

3 Life is all right if you have a job, but things are hard for………… .

4 Ambulances arrived at the scene of the accident and took………… to hospital.

5 More and more people are living longer. How are we going to care for………… ?

6 It’s nice to have lots of money, but …………have their problems too.

P What do you call the people of these countries?

 

one person (a/an …)

the people in general

1 Canada

2 Germany

3 France

4 Russia

5 Japan

6 Brazil

7 England

8 and your country

a Canadian

Canadians

 

Đáp án

A

1 a lift

2 a nice holiday … the best holiday

3 the nearest shop … the end of this street

4 a lovely day … a cloud in the sky

5 the most expensive hotel … a cheaper hotel

6 to travel in space … go to the moon

7 think of the movie … I thought the ending …

8 Is it a star? No, it’s a planet. It’s the largest planet in the solar system.

B

2 TV

3 the radio

4 The television

5 dinner

6 the same name

7 for breakfast

8 vitamin C

9 the internet

10 the ground … the sky

11 The next train … platform 3

C

2 … doing the same thing

3 Room 25 is on the second floor.

4 It was a very hot day. It was the hottest day of the year.

5 We had lunch in a nice restaurant by the sea.

6 What’s on at the cinema …

7 I had a big breakfast …

8 You’ll find the information you need at the top of page 15.

D

2 the sea

3 question 3

4 the cinema

5 the question

6 breakfast

7 Gate 24

8 the gate

E

2 school

3 the school

4 school

5 … get to and from school

6 the school

7 school

8 … walk to school. The school isn’t …

F

1b university

c university

d the university

2a hospital

b the hospital

c the hospital

d hospital

3a prison

b the prison

c prison

4a church

b church

c the church

G

2 to work

3 bed

4 at home

5 the bed

6 after work

7 in bed

8 home

9 work

10 like home

H

2 to school

3 at home or stayed home (without at)

4 to work

5 at university

6 in bed

7 to hospital

8 in prison

I

Example answers:

2–5 I like cats.

I don’t like zoos.

I don’t mind snow.

I’m not interested in boxing.

J

1b the apples

2a the people

b people

3a names

b the names

4a The First World War

b war

5a hard work

b the work

K

3 spiders

4 meat

5 the questions

6 the people

7 Biology

8 lies

9 The hotels

10 The water

11 the grass

12 patience

L

1 stories

2 the words

3 the rooms

4 public transport

5 All the books

6 Life

7 The weather

8 water

9 films (‘films with unhappy endings’ in general)

M

1b the cheetah

c the kangaroo (and the rabbit)

2a the swan

b the penguin

c the owl

3a the wheel

b the laser

c the telescope

4a the rupee

b the (Canadian) dollar

c the …

N

2 a

3 the

4 a

5 the

6 the

7 a

8 The

9 the

10 a

O

2 the sick

3 the unemployed

4 the injured

5 the elderly

6 the rich

P

2 a German Germans / German people

3 a Frenchman/Frenchwoman the French / French people

4 a Russian Russians / Russian people

5 a Japanese the Japanese / Japanese people

6 a Brazilian Brazilians / Brazilian people

7 an Englishman/Englishwoman the English / English people

8 …

 

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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 63: Mạo từ xác định THE – Học Hay

 

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