Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 97: like & as if – Học Hay
- Ta dùng like hoặc as if/as though (như thể là, cứ như là, giống như là) mô tả một tình huống không có thật hoặc không có khả năng xảy ra.
- That house looks like it’s going to fall down. or
That house looks as if it’s going to fall down.
- Amy sounded like she had a cold, didn’t she? or
Amy sounded as if she had a cold, didn’t she?
- I’ve just had a holiday, but I feel very tired.
I don’t feel like I’ve had a holiday. or
I don’t feel as if I’ve had a holiday.
- So sánh
- You look tired. (look + adjective)
- You look like you haven’t slept.
You look as if you haven’t slept.
Cách dùng as if/as though:
1. Nếu tình huống ở hiện tại:
Có khả năng xảy ra: S + V-s/-es + as if / as though + S +V-s/-es
Giả tưởng: S + V-s/-es + as if / as though + S +V2/-ed
- He acts as if/ as though he knows the answers. (Anh ta thể hiện cứ như thể anh ta biết đáp án rồi vậy)
=> Sự thực là anh ta có biết đáp án)
- He acts as though/ as if he knew the answers.
=> Anh ấy thể hiện như là biết câu trả lời nhưng anh ấy (có thể) không biết hoặc người nói không biết chắc chắn rằng anh ấy có biết hay không.
- Nếu động từ trước mệnh đề as if/as though ở thì quá khứ đơn thì lúc này động từ chính của mệnh đề as if/ as though sẽ chuyển từ hiện tại thành quá khứ đơn, nếu nó đã ở quá khứ đơn rồi thì giữ nguyên. Lúc này, thì của 2 mệnh đề là như nhau.
- Ví dụ: He looked as if he knew the answer.
=> Trong trường hợp này, nghĩa của câu (vì chúng ta cũng không chắc chắn anh ấy có biết câu trả lời hay không) sẽ phụ thuộc vào ngữ cảnh.
2. Tình huống ở quá khứ:
Có thật: S + V-s/-es + as if/ as though + S + have/has + V3/-ed
Không có thật: S + V-s/-es + as if + S + had + V3/-ed
- They look as if she has had some bad news. (Trông họ cứ như là vừa nghe tin dữ xong vậy)
=> Họ thực sự có tin buồn.
- They look as if she had had some bad news.
=> Trông có vẻ như là hô có tin buồn, nhưng chỉ là có khả năng như vậy thôi hoặc người nói không biết chắc chắn rằng họ có tin buồn hay không.
- Nếu ta chia động từ trước mệnh đề as if/as though ở quá khứ đơn thì lúc này động từ ở mệnh đề as if chuyển từ hiện tại hoàn thành sang quá khứ hoàn thành. Nếu nó đã ở quá khứ hoàn thành rồi thì giữ nguyên. Trong trường hợp này, nghĩa của câu sẽ được xác định dựa vào ngữ cảnh.
- Ví dụ: She looked as if she had had some bad news.
Bài tập Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 97: like & as if – Học Hay
A What do you say in these situations? Use the words in brackets to make your sentence.
1 You meet Bill. He has a black eye and blood on his face. (look / like / be / a fight)
You say to him: You look like you’ve been in a fight.
2 Claire comes into the room. She looks absolutely terrified. (look / as if / see / a ghost)
You say to her: What’s the matter? You…………………….
3 You have just run one kilometre, but you are exhausted. (feel / like / run / a marathon)
You say: I………………
4 Joe is on holiday. He’s talking to you on the phone and sounds happy.
(sound / as if / have / a good time)
You say to him: You………………
B Make sentences beginning It looks like … or It sounds like … .
you should see a doctor there’s been an accident they’re having an argument
it’s going to rain she isn’t coming they don’t have any
1 Sarah said she would be here an hour ago.
You say: It looks like she isn’t coming.
2 The sky is full of black clouds.
You say: It………………
3 You hear two people shouting at each other next door.
You say: ………………
4 You see an ambulance, some policemen and two damaged cars at the side of the road.
You say: ………………
5 You and a friend are in a supermarket. You’re looking for bananas, but without success.
You say: ………………
6 Dave isn’t feeling well. He tells you all about it.
You say: ………………
C Complete the sentences with as if. Choose from the box, putting the verbs in the correct form.
she / enjoy / it I / be / crazy he / not / eat / for a week
he / need / a good rest she / hurt / her leg he / mean / what he / say
I / not / exist she / not / want / come
1 Mark looks very tired. He looks as if he needs a good rest.
2 I don’t think Paul was joking. He looked……………… .
3 What’s the matter with Lisa? She’s walking……………… .
4 Paul was extremely hungry and ate his dinner very quickly.
He ate……………… .
5 I looked at Sarah during the movie. She had a bored expression on her face.
She didn’t look……………… .
6 I told my friends about my plan. They were amazed.
They looked at me……………… .
7 I phoned Kate and invited her to the party, but she wasn’t very enthusiastic.
She sounded……………… .
8 I went into the office, but nobody spoke to me or looked at me.
Everybody ignored me……………… .
D These sentences are like the ones in Section D. Complete each sentence using as if.
1 Andy is a terrible driver. He drives as if he were the only driver on the road.
2 I’m 20 years old, so please don’t talk to me……………… a child.
3 Steve has never met Nicola, but he talks about her……………… his best friend.
4 We first met a long time ago, but I remember it ………………yesterday.
2 You look as if you’ve seen a ghost. / … as if you saw a ghost.
3 I feel like I’ve (just) run a marathon. / … like I (just) ran a marathon.
4 You sound as if you’re having a good time.
2 It looks like it’s going to rain.
3 It sounds like they’re having an argument.
4 It looks like there’s been an accident.
5 It looks like they don’t have any.
6 It sounds like you should see a doctor.
2 as if he meant what he said
3 as if she’s hurt her leg / as if she hurt her leg
4 as if he hadn’t eaten for a week
5 as if she was enjoying it
6 as if I was crazy / as if I were crazy
7 as if she didn’t want to come
8 as if I didn’t exist
2 as if I was/were
3 as if she was/were
4 as if it was/were
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