Sách Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 99: by & until/ by the time... – Học Hay


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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 99: by & until/ by the time... – Học Hay

A. By

- by … = not later than (vào …(mốc thời gian) – không trễ hơn)

  • I sent the documents today, so they should arrive by Monday.
    (= on or before Monday, not later than Monday)
  • We’d better hurry. We have to be home by 5 o’clock.
    (= at or before 5 o’clock, not later than 5 o’clock)
  • Where’s Sarah? She should be here by now.
    (= now or before now – so she should already be here)

B. Until

- until (or till) đoực dùng để nói một sự vật/việc tiếp tục diễn ra trong bao lâu (how long)

  • A: Shall we go now?
    B: No, let’s wait until it stops raining. or … till it stops raining.
  • I was very tired this morning. I stayed in bed until half past ten.
    I didn’t get up until half past ten.

- until và by:

- Một việc/sự kiện sẽ tiếp tục diễn ra cho tới (until) một thời điểm trong tương lai

 

Joe will be away until Monday.

(so he’ll be back on Monday)

 

I’ll be working until 11.30.

(so I’ll stop working at 11.30)

 

- Một việc/sự kiện sẽ diễn ra vào (by) một thời điểm trong tương lai

 

Joe will be back by Monday.

(= not later than Monday)

 

I’ll have finished my work by 11.30.

(= I’ll finish it not later than 11.30)

 

C. By the time

- by the time + S + V (hiện tại)

  • It’s too late to go to the bank now. By the time we get there, it will be closed.
    (= ngân hàng sẽ đóng cửa vào giữa thời điểm bây giờ (now) và lúc chúng tôi đến đó (by the time))
  • You’ll need plenty of time at the airport. By the time you check in and go through security, it will be time for your flight.
    (= check-in and security will take a long time)
  • Hurry up! By the time we get to the cinema, the film will already have started.

- by the time + S + V (quá khứ)

  • Karen’s car broke down on the way to the party last night. By the time she arrived, most of the other guests had left.
    (= it took her a long time to get there and most of the guests left during this time)
  • I had a lot of work to do yesterday evening. I was very tired by the time I finished.
    (= it took me a long time to do the work, and I became more and more tired)
  • We went to the cinema last night. It took us a long time to find somewhere to park the car. By the time we got to the cinema, the film had already started.

- Ta có thể dùng by then hoặc by that time:

  • Karen finally got to the party at midnight, but by then most of the other guests had left.
  • or … but by that time, most of the other guests had left.

Bài tập Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 99: by & until/ by the time... – Học Hay

A Complete the sentences with by.

1 We have to be home not later than 5 o’clock.

We have to be home by 5 o’clock .

2 I have to be at the airport not later than 8.30.

I have to be at the airport……………………… .

3 Let me know not later than Saturday whether you can come to the party.

………………whether you can come to the party.

4 Please make sure that you’re here not later than 2 o’clock.

Please make sure that……………… .

5 If we leave now, we should arrive not later than lunchtime.

If we leave now, ……………… .

B Put in by or until.

1 Steve has gone away. He’ll be away until Monday.

2 Sorry, but I must go. I have to be home……………… 5 o’clock.

3 According to the forecast, the bad weather will continue ………………the weekend.

4 I don’t know whether to apply for the job or not. I have to decide ………………Friday.

5 I think I’ll wait ………………Thursday before making a decision.

6 I’m still waiting for Tom to call me. He should have called me ………………now.

7 I need to pay this bill. It has to be paid ………………tomorrow.

8 Don’t pay the bill today. Wait ………………tomorrow.

9 We haven’t finished painting the house yet. We hope to finish……………… Tuesday.

10 ‘Will you still be in the office at 6.30?’ ‘No, I’ll have gone home……………… then.’

11 I’m moving into my new flat next week. I’m staying with a friend……………… then.

12 I’ve got a lot of work to do. ………………the time I finish, it will be time to go to bed.

13 We have plenty of time. The film doesn’t start……………… 8.30.

14 It is hoped that the new bridge will be completed ………………the end of the year.

C Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use by or until.

1 David is away at the moment. He’ll be away until Monday .

2 David is away at the moment. He’ll be back by Monday .

3 I’m just going out. I won’t be long. Wait here……………… .

4 I’m just going out. It’s 4.30 now. I won’t be long. I’ll be back……………… .

5 If you want to apply for the job, your application must be received……………… .

6 My passport is valid……………… .

7 I missed the last bus and had to walk home. I didn’t get home……………… .

D Read the situations and complete the sentences using By the time … .

1 I was invited to a party, but I got there much later than I intended.

By the time I got to the party , most of the other guests had left.

2 I intended to catch a train, but it took me longer than expected to get to the station.

………………, my train had already left.

3 I wanted to go shopping after work. But I finished work much later than expected.

………………, it was too late to go shopping.

4 I saw two men who looked as if they were trying to steal a car. I called the police, but it was some time before they arrived.

………………, the two men had disappeared.

5 We climbed a mountain and it took us a long time to get to the top. There wasn’t much time to enjoy the view.

………………, we had to come down again.

Đáp án

A

2 by 8.30

3 Let me know by Saturday

4 you’re here by 2 o’clock.

5 we should arrive by lunchtime.

B

2 by

3 until

4 by

5 until

6 by

7 by

8 until

9 by

10 by

11 until

12 By

13 until

14 by

C

Example answers:

3 until I come back

4 by 5 o’clock

5 by 3 April

6 until 2028

7 until midnight

120.4

2 By the time I got to the station

3 By the time I finished (work)

4 By the time the police arrived

5 By the time we got to the top (of the mountain)

 

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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 99: by & until/ by the time... – Học Hay

 

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